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Archived Workshops/References

Burrowing Owl

Description

Western burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) are found in open habitat, especially grasslands and prairies, as well as human-altered environments such as urban parks, airports, agricultural areas, and adjacent to residential and commercial areas.  They are distributed from southern Canada to northern Mexico and west of the Mississippi to the Pacific coast. This is the only owl that lives and nests underground.  Birds most often take over burrows dug by colonial rodents, such as ground squirrels or prairie dogs, or other burrowing species, such as badgers.  Their year-round activities center on the burrow.  They are active day and night.  During the day, birds can be seen standing in or at their burrow, standing on perches near by or hunting nearby prey; by night, birds forage.  Burrowing owls eat insects and small rodents, and their diets are well-known to vary based on local availability of prey.  Birds lay between 2-12 eggs and typically have one brood a year.  In California, nesting begins in February, chicks typically begin to emerge in May, and by October chicks have molted into adult plumage and begin to disperse. Juveniles are mature the next spring.  The western burrowing owl is migratory throughout much of its range, although California supports both resident and migratory birds.

Adult plumage is mottled brown and white and birds have lemon yellow eyes.  Adults stand approximately 7.5-10 inches (19-25 cm) tall and weigh approximately 5 ounces (150 grams).  They have long, nearly unfeathered legs.  Burrowing owls are strong flyers, but also are well adapted life on the ground. Adults are not dimorphic, but in the summer males can be distinguished from females based on behavior and lighter plumage color.  Since males typically spend significant time in the sun, while female spend more time underground, males are often paler than females.  The buffy breasts of young in juvenile plumage are one way to distinguish them from adults.

Burrowing owls are a Species of Special Concern in California.  While there are large numbers of birds in some agricultural areas, especially in the Imperial Valley and Central Valley, burrowing owls living in urban settings have seen population declines.  Key factors in declines are loss of grassland habitat to urban and agricultural development, habitat degradation, elimination of burrowing mammals, predation, and contaminants. 

Training Programs

Western Burrowing Owl Repeat Workshop - 2013 Field session2
Western Burrowing Owl Repeat Workshop - 2013 Field Session 1 Aug 30, 2013
Western Burrowing Owl Repeat Workshop 2013 Aug 30, 2013
Western Burrowing Owl Repeat Workshop - 2013 Field Session 2 Aug 31, 2013
Western Burrowing Owl Workshop - 2013 Sep 5, 2013
Western Burrowing Owl Workshop - 2013 Field session 1 Sep 5, 2013
Western Burrowing Owl Workshop - 2013 Field Session 2 Sep 6, 2013
Western Burrowing Owl Workshop 2014 Field Session 1 Jul 30, 2014
Western Burrowing Owl Workshop 2014 Jul 30, 2014
Western Burrowing Owl Workshop 2014 Field Session 2 Jul 31, 2014
Western Burrowing Owl Workshop 2015 Aug 14, 2015
Western Burrowing Owl Workshop 2016 Jul 28, 2016

Documents and Publications

TITLE
DATE ADDED
AUTHOR
SOURCE
DESCRIPTION
WORKSHOP MATERIALS
Burrowing Owl Workshop Presentation
PDF, 3.9MB
Apr 24 14
Lynne Trullio

2014
Powerpoint presentation from workshop
Burrowing Owl Bibliography
PDF, 138KB
Aug 26 13
Lynne Trulio

July 2016
Workshop Bibliography
PEER-REVIEWED PUBLICATIONS
A case of leucism in the Burrowing Owl Athene cunicularia (Aves: Strigiformes) with confirmation of species identity using cytogenic analysis
PDF, 2.7MB
Aug 22 14
Denise M. Nogueira and Maria Alice S. Alves
Zoologia. 28 (1): 53-57
2011
Leucism is an inherited disorder, characterized by the lack of pigments in part or all of the body, normal coloration of the eyes and, in birds, in naked parts such as the bill and legs.
A comparison of available prey and diet of Florida Burrowing Owls in urban and rural environments: A first study
PDF, 88KB
Aug 22 14
Robert J. Mrykalo, Melissa M. Grigione, and Ronald J. Sarno
The Condor, 111 (3):556-559
2009
Determining differences in the owl’s ecology between rural and urban/suburban areas can aid in creating effective statewide management strategies for this species. We compared the available prey and diet of Burrowing Owls in a rural and urban environment.
A population decline recorded by Operation Burrowing Owl in Saskatchewan
PDF, 788KB
Aug 22 14
Margaret A. Skeel, Jeff Keith, and Carla S. Palaschuk
Journal of Raptor Research, 35 (4): 371-377
2001
After correctingfor non-responding members each year, the annual census indicated a 95% decline in estimated number of pairs over 13 yr from 1988 (1032pairs) to 2000 (56 pairs); this represents an average decline of 21.5% per year.
A sightability model for correcting visibility and availability biases in standardized surveys of breeding Burrowing Owls in Southwest agroecosystem environments
PDF, 190KB
Aug 22 14
Jeffrey A. Manning and Edward O. Garton
The Journal of Wildlife Management, 76(1): 65-74
2012
We conducted visibility trials and developed logistic regression models to identify and correct for visibility bias associated with single, vehicle-based, visual survey occasions of breeding male owls during daylight hours in an agricultural landscape in California between 30 April and 2 May 2007.
A simple artificial burrow design for burrowing owls
PDF, 361KB
Jul 16 14
John H. Barclay
Journal of Raptor Research, 42 (1): 53-57
2008
Abundance and density of mountain plover (Charadrius montanus) and Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia) in eastern Colorado
PDF, 214KB
Aug 22 14
Heather C. Tipton, Paul F. Doherty. and Victoria J. Dreitz
The Auk, 126 (3): 493-499
2009
We estimated abundance of Mountain Plovers and Burrowing Owls in three habitats within the Colorado shortgrass prairie ecosystem— prairie dog colonies, grassland not occupied by prairie dogs, and dryland agriculture.
An analysis of spatial clustering and implications for wildlife management - A burrowing owl example
PDF, 163KB
Jun 28 12
Joshua B. Fisher, Lynne Trulio, Gregory Biging, Debra Chromczak
Environmental Management, 39: 403-411
2007
Analyses of burrowing owl populations in New Mexico
PDF, 1MB
Jul 16 14
Patricia C. Arrowood, Carol A. Finley, Bruce C. Thompson
Journal of Raptor Research, 35 (4): 362-370
2001
Factors most often reported to be associated with stable or increasing populations were food availability, suitable habitat (including the presence of prairie dogs), and increased precipitation.
Assessing changes in the distribution and abundance of burrowing owls in California, 1993-2007
PDF, 11.4MB
Jun 28 12
Robert Wilkerson and Rodney Siegel
Bird Populations, 10: 1-36
2010
Assessing the feasibility of release techniques for captive-bred Burrowing Owls
PDF, 351KB
Aug 22 14
Ray G. Poulin and L. Danielle Todd
Journal of Raptor Research, 40 (2): 142-150
2006
Association between wildlife and agriculture: Underlying mechanisms and implications in Burrowing Owls
PDF, 177KB
Aug 22 14
Colleen E. Moulton, Ryan S. Brady and James R. Belthoff
The Journal of Wildlife Management, 70(3): 708-716
2006
To determine potential factors driving the association of burrowing owls with agriculture, we examined availability of suitable nest burrows (burrow availability hypothesis), abundance of potential prey (prey availability hypothesis), and predation of nest burrows (predation hypothesis) for owls nesting in the Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area in southwestern Idaho during 2001–2002.
Bird mortality in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California
PDF, 958KB
Aug 22 14
K. Shawn Smallwood and Carl Thelander
The Journal of Wildlife Management, 72(1): 215-223
2008
Precision of mortality estimates could be improved by deploying technology to remotely detect collisions and by making wind turbine power output data available to researchers so that the number of fatalities can be related directly to the actual power output of the wind turbine since the last fatality search.
Breeding dispersal of a Burrowing Owl from Arizona to Saskatchewan
PDF, 131KB
Aug 22 14
Geoffrey L. Holroyd, Courtney J. Conway, and Helen E. Trefry
The Wilson Journal of Ornithology, 123 (2): 378-381
2011
We document a female Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia) that nested in Arizona and dispersed 1,860 km to Saskatchewan, where she successfully raised seven young during the same breeding season.
Burrow occupancy patterns of the Western Burrowing Owl in southern Nevada
PDF, 2MB
Aug 15 14
Paul D. Greger and Derek B. Hall
Western North American Naturalist, 69(3):285-294
2009
Monthly burrow monitoring was conducted over a 4-year period (1997-2001) in southern Nevada to determine burrow occupancy patterns of Burrowing Owls and to evaluate the effects of burrow type and desert region on burrow occupancy
Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia) population genetics: A comparison of North American forms and migratory habits
PDF, 704KB
Aug 22 14
Nicole M. Korfanta, David B. McDonald, and Travis C. Glenn
The Auk, 122 (2):464-478
2005
To assess genetic structure, we examined 201 individuals from nine western and six Florida populations at seven highly variable microsatellite DNA loci.
Burrowing Owl and other migratory bird mitigation for a runway construction project at Edwards AFB
PDF, 528KB
Aug 22 14
Amber L. Hoehn, Mark Hagan, and Mark Bratton
Human-Wildlife Conflicts, 3 (2):251-256
2009
To discourage nesting in the project area, reduce the potential for bird and wildlife–aircraft strikes, and maintain compliance with federal environmental law, more than 400 potential nesting burrows and nesting habitat (e.g., trees, shrubs, and cacti) were removed prior to the nesting season and construction activities.
Burrowing Owl associations with black-tailed prairie dog colonies in southwestern Kansas and southeastern Colorado
PDF, 103KB
Aug 22 14
Stephen L. Winter and Jack F. Cully, Jr.
The Prairie Naturalist, 39 (2):69-75
2007
We quantified the use of black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies as habitat for the burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia) in southwestern Kansas and southeastern Colorado.
Burrowing Owl mortality in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area
PDF, 299KB
Aug 22 14
K. Shawn Smallwood, Carl G. Thelander, Michael L. Morrison, and Lourdes M. Rugge
The Journal of Wildlife Management, 71(5):1513-1524
2007
All turbines in the APWRA could be shut down and blades locked during winter, when 35% of the burrowing owls were killed but only 14% of the annual electricity was generated. Terminating rodent control and installing flight diverters at the ends of turbine rows might also reduce burrowing owl mortality, as might replacing turbines with new-generation turbines mounted on taller towers.
Burrowing Owl nest success and burrow longevity in north central Oregon
PDF, 358KB
Aug 22 14
Aaron L. Holmes, Gregory A. Green, Russell L. Morgan, and Kent B. Livezey
Western North American Naturalist, 63 (2):244-250
2003
Burrowing Owls and agricultural pesticides: Evaluation of residues and risks for three populations in California, USA
PDF, 66KB
Aug 15 14
Jennifer A. Gervais, Daniel K. Rosenberg, D. Michael Fry, Lynne Trulio, and Kenneth K. Sturm
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 19(2):337-343
2000
We examined selenium, organophosphorus, and organochlorine pesticide residues in egg, footwash, and feather samples from burrowing owls in three populations in central and southern California.
Characteristics of roost sites used by Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia) wintering in southern Texas
PDF, 1.1MB
Aug 22 14
Damon L. Williford, Marc C. Woodin, Mary K. Skoruppa, and Graham C. Hickman
The Southwestern Naturalist, 52(1):60-66
2007
Most previous research has focused on burrowing owl breeding biology, and little is known about its winter ecology. We determined characteristics of roost sites used by western burrowing owls in southern Texas during winter.
Chronic Organochlorine Contaminants, Environmental Variability, and the Demographics of a Burrowing Owl Population
PDF, 163KB
Aug 15 14
Gervais, Jennifer A. and Anthony, Robert G.
Ecological Applications, 13(5):1250-1262
2003
We studied a population of Burrowing Owls whose eggs contained the organochlorine compound p,p'DDE and traces of other organochlorine contaminants to determine if the levels of contamination were associated with survival or reproduction when nonanthropogenic environmental and biological variables were also considered.
Comparative demography of Burrowing Owls in agricultural and urban landscapes in southeastern Washington
PDF, 200KB
Jul 22 14
Courtney J. Conway, Victoria Garcia, Matthew D. Smith, Lisa A. Ellis, and Joyce L. Whitney
Journal of Field Ornithology, 77 (3):280-290
2006
Due to high burrow fidelity from year to year, and the tendency of some owls in Washington to overwinter, we recommend that legal protection of nest burrows be extended to the nonbreeding season.
Correlations between burrowing owl and black-tailed prairie dog declines: A 7-year analysis
PDF, 488KB
Jul 22 14
Martha J. Desmond, Julie A. Savidge, Kent M. Eskridge
The Journal of Wildlife Management, 64(4):1067-1075
2000
We monitored burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia) populations and prairie dog densities in 17 black-tailed prairie dog colonies in the Nebraska panhandle between 1990 and 1996.
Density and reproduction of Burrowing Owls along an urban development gradient
PDF, 2.1MB
Aug 22 14
Brian A. Millsap and Cindy Bear
The Journal of Wildlife Management, 64(1):33-41
2000
We observed 785 breeding attempts at 264 unique nest sites in an increasing population of owls. Linear regression indicated that nest site density (6.9 pairs/ km2 in 1990) increased until 45-60% of lots were developed before decreasing.
Diet and food-niche breadth of Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia) in the Imperial Valley, California
PDF, 73KB
Aug 22 14
Melissa M. York, Daniel K. Rosenberg, and Ken K. Sturm
Western North American Naturalist, 62 (3):280-287
2002
Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia) occupy intensively managed agricultural areas within the Imperial Valley of California, where they occur at high densities relative to other areas in the state, and yet reproductive rates are often low. Understanding diet and food-niche breadth may lead to insights into factors contributing to their poor reproductive performance.
Distribution and abundance of Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) in southeastern California
PDF, 65KB
Aug 22 14
Robert L. Wilkerson and Rodney B. Siegel
The Southwestern Naturalist, 56(3):378-384
2011
During the 2006 and 2007 breeding seasons, we conducted a systematic survey for western burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) across the portions of California’s southeastern deserts that had never been systematically surveyed for the species.
Distribution and abundance of western burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) in southeastern California.
PDF, 197KB
Sep 04 13
Wilkerson and Siegel
Southwestern Naturalist, 56(3)
2011
Peer reviewed doc on distribution of Burrowing Owl
Diurnal time budget of Burrowing Owls in a resident population during the non-breeding season
PDF, 100KB
Aug 22 14
David H. LaFever, Kristin E. LaFever, Daniel H. Catlin, and Daniel K. Rosenberg
The Southwestern Naturalist, 53(1):29-33
2008
We evaluated the hypothesis that during the non-breeding season the gender-specific allocation of time and effort observed diurnally in the breeding season changes, with males and females exhibiting more similar time budgets.
Do land-use patterns influence nest-site selection by Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) in northeastern Colorado?
PDF, 200KB
Aug 22 14
Patricia B. Orth and Patricia L. Kennedy
Canadian Journal of Zoology, 79:1038-1045
2001
We predicted that owl-occupied prairie dog towns would be in less fragmented landscapes that contain more prairie then owl-unoccupied prairie dog towns. To test this prediction, we used a geographic information system and spatial analysis metrics to examine the landscape within 1000 and 2500 m radius circles surrounding prairie dog towns in the shortgrass prairie in northeastern Colorado.
Effects of human land use on Western Burrowing Owl foraging and activity budgets
EFFECTS OF HUMAN LAND USE ON WESTERN BURROWING OWL FORAGING AND ACTIVITY BUDGETS, 131KB
Aug 22 14
Erica D. Chipman, Nancy E. McIntyre, Richard E. Strauss, Mark C. Wallace, James D. Ray, and Clint W. Boal
Journal of Raptor Research, 42 (2):000-000
2008
We compared the diurnal foraging and activity budgets of adult male Burrowing Owls during the breeding seasons of 2004 and 2005 at three urban and three rural sites in northwestern Texas
Effects of radiotransmitter necklaces on behaviors of adult male Western Burrowing Owls
PDF, 105KB
Jul 16 14
Erica D. Chipman, Nancy E. McIntyre, James D. Ray, Mark C. Wallace, and Clint W. Boal
The Journal of Wildlife Management, 71 (5):1662-1668
2007
Although the owls spent a significant amount of time interacting with their necklaces, they appeared to habituate to the presence of the transmitters within a relatively short period, and necklaces did not affect survivorship or fitness in the short-term.
Effects of radiotransmitters on natal recruitment of Burrowing Owls
PDF, 145KB
Jul 16 14
Courtney J. Conway and Victoria Garcia
Journal of Wildlife Management
2004
Effects of survey methods on Burrowing Owl behaviors
PDF, 116KB
Aug 22 14
Jeffrey A. Manning and Robb S. A. Kaler
The Journal of Wildlife Management, 75(3):525-530
2011
We designed a field experiment to compare burrowing owl flight distances, times displaced, and probabilities of being displaced between 4 potential population survey methods (single walking surveyor, single vehicle stop, single vehicle stop with 2 surveyors, and double vehicle stop with 2 surveyors), and an experimental control in the agricultural matrix of Imperial Valley, California.
Estimation of reproductive rates of Burrowing Owls
PDF, 1.6MB
Aug 15 14
Leah R. Gorman, Daniel K. Rosenberg, Noelle A. Ronan, Katherin L. Haley, Jennifer A. Gervais, and Vince Franke
Journal of Wildlife Management, 67(3):493-500
2003
We compared methods for estimating reproductive rates of burrowing owls, defined as the number of 21- to 28-day-oldyoung per successful nest. We compared observations using (1) the mean and (2) the maximum number of young observed during 5 30-min observation periods, and (3) the maximum number of young videotaped during 2-hrvideo surveillance.
Factors affecting daily nest survival of Burrowing Owls within black-tailed prairie dog colonies
PDF, 2.4MB
Aug 22 14
Sarah J. Lantz and Courtney J. Conway
The Journal of Wildlife Management, 73(2):232-241
2009
We estimated daily nest survival for a migratory population of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) breeding in black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies in Wyoming, USA. We compared estimates based on 3 common approaches: apparent nesting success, Mayfield estimates, and a model-based logistic-exposure approach.
Factors affecting detection probability of Burrowing Owls in southwest agroecosystem environments
PDF, 258KB
Aug 22 14
Jeffrey A. Manning
The Journal of Wildlife Management, 75(7):1558-1567
2011
I used closed-population capture-recapture models to evaluate 4 factors that could affect the probability of a surveyor detecting an owl activity center (i.e., nest burrow) during visual surveys where owls are the focal object and analyzed the relationship (linear or curvilinear) between specific factors and detection probability.
Factors affecting the presence of nesting burrowing owls in an agricultural landscape
PDF, 214KB
Jul 16 14
Nickolas D. Bartok and Courtney J. Conway
Journal of Raptor Research, 44 (4):286-293
2010
We examined factors that influenced the presence of nesting Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) along roadsides and irrigation water-conveyance systems within an intensive agricultural area in Imperial Valley, southeastern California.
Factors influencing nesting success of Burrowing Owls in southeastern Idaho
PDF, 308KB
Aug 15 14
Richard S. Gleason and Daniel R. Johnson
Great Basin Naturalist, 45 (1):81-84
1985
A burrowing owl (Athene cuniciilaria) population nesting on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in southeastern Idaho utilized burrows excavated by badgers (Taxidea taxiis) or natural cavities in lava flows as nesting sites.
Factors influencing selection of road culvert as winter roost sites by Wester Burrowing Owls
FACTORS INFLUENCING SELECTION OF ROAD CULVERTS AS WINTER ROOST SITES BY WESTERN BURROWING OWLS, 131KB
Aug 22 14
Damon Williford, Marc C. Woodin, and Mary Kay Skoruppa
Western North American Naturalist, 69(2):149-154
2009
We studied factors influencing the selection of road culverts as roost sites by Burrowing Owls by comparing characteristics of 34 occupied and 100 unoccupied culverts.
Factors related to body condition of nestling Burrowing Owls in Buffalo Gap National Grassland, South Dakota
PDF, 641KB
Aug 15 14
Randall L. Griebel and Julie A. Savidge
The Wilson Bulletin, 115(4):477-480
2003
In 1999, which had a wet spring, body condition was negatively related to brood size and distance from nest to colony edge. There was no relationship between body condition and brood size during 2000, which had normal precipitation.
Food habits of Burrowing Owls in Southeastern Idaho
PDF, 208KB
Aug 15 14
R. L. Gleason and T. H. Craig
Great Basin Naturalist, 39 (3):274-276
1979
Food habits of a population of the Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Butte County, were studied.
Habitat and nest-site selection by Burrowing Owls in the sagebrush steppe of Idaho
PDF, 1.2MB
Aug 22 14
Terrell Ranch
The Journal of Wildlife Management, 50(4):548-555
1986
Burrow security and prey availability, especially the proximity to populations of montane voles (Microtus montanus) on farmland, may explain some of the habitat selection observed.
Home range and dispersal of juvenile Florida Burrowing Owls
PDF, 118KB
Aug 22 14
Robert J. Mrykalo, Melissa M. Grigione, and Ronald J. Sarno
The Wilson Journal of Ornithology, 119 (2):275-279
2007
Importance of agricultural landscapes to nesting Burrowing Owls in the Northern Great Plains, USA
PDF, 279KB
Aug 22 14
Marco Restani, J. Morgan Davies, and Wesley E. Newton
Landscape Ecology, 23:977-987
2008
Management that protects prairie dog colonies bordering cropland and crested wheatgrass should be implemented to maintain nesting habitat of burrowing owls.
Influence of prey abundance on northern spotted owl reproductive success in western Oregon
PDF, 319KB
Aug 22 14
Daniel K. Rosenberg, Keith A. Swindle, and Robert G. Anthony
Canadian Journal of Zoology, 81:1715-1725
2003
The low temporal variability of the dominant prey species provided evidence that simple prey relationship models were not likely to ex- plain the highly synchronous and temporally dynamic patterns of spotted owl reproductive performance. Reproductive success was likely a result of the interaction of both weather and prey and the life history strategy of this long-lived owl.
Interactive effects of prey and p,p'DDE on Burrowing Owl population dynamics
PDF, 233KB
Aug 15 14
Jennifer A. Gervais, Christine M. Hunter, and Robert G. Anthony
Ecological Applications, 16(2):666-677
2006
We used population models to explore the effects of the organochlorine contaminant p,p'-DDE and fluctuations in vole availability on the population dynamics of Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia).
Intraspecific variation in reproductive traits of burrowing owls
PDF, 221KB
Jul 22 14
Meaghan Conway, Christopher P. Nadeau, and Courtney J. Conway
Journal of Ethology, 30:395-402
2012
We examined intraspecific variation in clutch size, laying chronology, onset of incu- bation, incubation period, and hatching asynchrony in burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) in the Imperial Valley of California.
Modelling effects of chemical exposure on birds wintering in agricultural landscapes: The western burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) as a case study
PDF, 1.7MB
Jul 22 14
Catherine A. Engelman, William E. Grant, Miguel A. Mora, and Marc Woodin
Ecological Modelling, 224:90-102
2012
The model should prove useful in helping prioritize the chemicals and transfer pathways targeted in future studies and also, as these new data become available, in assessing the relative danger to other birds of exposure to different types of agricultural chemicals.
Movements, activity patterns, and habitat use of Burrowing Owls in Saskatchewan
PDF, 2MB
Aug 22 14
Elizabeth A. Haug and Lynn W. Oliphant
The Journal of Wildlife Management, 54(1):27-35
1990
We studied the breeding ecology of burrowing owls( Athene cunicularia) in central Saskatchewan during 1982-83. We determined home range, activity patterns, and habitat used for foraging for 6 radio-tagged adult male owls
Multi-scale habitat selection by Burrowing Owls in black-tailed prairie dog colonies
PDF, 1.6MB
Aug 22 14
Sarah J. Lantz, Courtney J. Conway, and Stanley H. Anderson
The Journal of Wildlife Management, 71(8):2664-2672
2007
To design and implement effective recovery efforts, we need a better understanding of how distribution and demographic traits are influenced by habitat quality. To this end, we measured spatial patterns of burrowing owl breeding habitat selection within black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus)colonies in northeastern Wyoming, USA.
Nest destruction associated with mortality and dispersal of burrowing owls in the Imperial Valley, California
PDF, 49KB
Jul 16 14
Daniel H. Catlin and Daniel K. Rosenberg
The Southwestern Naturalist, 51(3):406-409
2006
We documented the effects of inadvertent nest destruction from road maintenance activities on the survivorship, reproductive success, and breeding dispersal of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) breeding in natural burrows along the water delivery system in the Imperial Valley of California.
Nesting ecology of Burrowing Owls occupying black-tailed prairie dog towns in southeastern Montana
PDF, 916KB
Aug 22 14
Marco Restani, Larry R. Rau, and Dennis L. Flath
Journal of Raptor Research, 35 (4):296-303
2001
In 1998 we studied nest-site selection, productivity ,and food habits of Burrowing Owls breeding on prairie dog townsin southeastern Montana.
Nesting success and habitat relationships of Burrowing Owls in the Columbia Basin, Oregon
PDF, 1.3MB
Aug 15 14
Gregory A. Green and Robert G. Anthony
The Condor, 91(2):347-354
1989
Nest successwas 57% for 63 nests in 1980 and 50% for 76 nests in 1981. Desertion was the major cause (32%) of nest failures and was related to the proximity of other nesting pairs. Depredation of nests by badgers (Taxideataxus) was the next most frequent cause (14%) of nest failure.
Notes on the Burrowing Owl food habits in Oklahoma
PDF, 424KB
Aug 22 14
Jack D. Tyler
The Southwestern Naturalist, 28(1):100-102
1983
Novel micro satellite loci for the Burrowing Owl Athene cunicularia
PDF, 192KB
Aug 22 14
Alberto Macias-Duarte, Courtney J. Conway, Adrian Munguia-Vega, and Melanie Culver
Conservation Genetics Resources
2010
To determine the breeding dispersal patterns underlying this distributional change, we developed 11 novel polymorphic microsatellite loci for the species. We tested these loci in two burrowing owl breeding populations, one from central Sinaloa, Mexico, and one from the Central Valley of California, USA.
Passive Relocation - A method to preserve Burrowing Owls on disturbed sites
PDF, 566KB
Jun 28 12
Lynne Trulio
Journal of Field Ornithology, 66(1):99-106
1995
Population trajectory of Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia) in Eastern Washington
PDF, 232KB
Jul 16 14
Courtney J. Conway and Keith L. Pardieck
Northwest Science, 80 (4):292-297
2006
To provide insights into the current status of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia), we analyzed data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey using two analytical approaches to determine their current population trajectory in eastern Washington.
Post-breeding dispersal of Burrowing Owls in an extensive California grassland
PDF, 80KB
Aug 22 14
Jeff R. Rosier, Noelle A. Ronan, and Daniel K. Rosenberg
The American Midland Naturalist, 155 (1):162-167
2006
The large dispersal distances we observed within the breeding season were greater than previously published estimates of between-year breeding dispersal based on mark-recapture methods and provide insight into the lack of genetic differentiation observed among burrowing owl populations.
Pre-migratory movements by juvenile Burrowing Owls in a patchy landscape
PRE-MIGRATORY MOVEMENTS BY JUVENILE BURROWING OWLS IN A PATCHY LANDSCAPE, 182KB
Aug 22 14
L. Danielle Todd, Ray G. Poulin, R. Mark Brigham, Erin M. Bayne, and Troy I. Wellicome
Avian Conservation and Ecology, 2(2):4
2007
We used radio-telemetry and supplementary feeding to test if body condition or landscape pattern influenced pre-migratory movements of juvenile Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia) in a fragmented landscape.
Radiotransmitter mount type affects Burrowing Owl survival
PDF, 79KB
Aug 15 14
Jennifer A. Gervais, Daniel H. Catlin, Nathan D. Chelgren, and Daniel K. Rosenberg
Journal of Wildlife Management, 70(3):872-876
2006
We conducted research on the demographics, space use, and dispersal patterns in 2 resident populations of burrowing owls in California. We used 2 different radio attachment methods with varying total mass during the course of these research projects.
Regional and seasonal diet of the Western Burrowing Owl in south central Nevada
PDF, 948KB
Aug 22 14
Derek B. Hall, Paul D. Greger, and Jeffrey R. Rosier
Western North American Naturalist, 69 (1):1-8
2009
Relationship between yolk androgens and nest density, laying date, and laying order in Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea)
PDF, 595KB
Aug 22 14
J.L. Welty, J.R. Belthoff, J. Egbert, and H. Schwabl
Canadian Journal of Zoology, 90:182-192
2012
It is possible that the seasonal pattern in yolk androgens that we observed is related to aspects of mate quality for females or declining chances of fledging success for later nesting females, whereas rises in egg androgens between early and late eggs within clutches could reflect a mechanism to assist nestlings from late-laid eggs that hatch one to several days after their siblings to better compete for resources within the nest or promote survival in the presence of larger siblings.
Rodents new to the diet of the western Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea)
PDF, 75KB
Aug 22 14
Damon L. Williford, Marc C. Woodin, Mary Kay Skoruppa, and Graham C. Hickman
The Southwestern Naturalist, 54(1):87-90
2009
The northern pygmy mouse (Baiomys taylori), fulvous harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys fulvescens), and Merriam’s pocket mouse (Perognathus merriami) are new to the diet of the western burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea).
Selected aspects of Burrowing Owl ecology and behavior
PDF, 2MB
Aug 22 14
Dennis J. Martin
The Condor, 75(4):446-456
1973
Sex and nest stage differences in the circadian foraging behaviors of nesting Burrowing Owls
PDF, 1.3MB
Aug 22 14
Ray G. Poulin and L. Danielle Todd
The Condor, 108 (4):856-864
2006
Vertebrates comprised 98%-99% of prey biomass delivered until females began delivering insects, but even then vertebrates still comprised 94% of prey biomass. Insects were consistently delivered at the highest rate during the day and vertebrates were consistently delivered at the highest rates during the dusk and dawn periods.
Some foods eaten by a Burrowing Owl overwintering on southern Vancouver Island
PDF, 452KB
Aug 22 14
Kenneth H. Morgan, Richard J. Cannings and Crispin S. Guppy
Northwestern Naturalist, 74 (3):84-87
1993
Space use and pesticide exposure risk of male Burrowing Owls in an agricultural landscape
PDF, 2.4MB
Aug 15 14
Jennifer A. Gervais, Daniel K. Rosenberg, and Robert G. Anthony
Journal of Wildlife Management, 67(1):155-164
2003
Owl home ranges varied in size within (but not between) years, and not in conjunction with any of the biological factors we measured.
Survival of Florida Burrowing Owls along an urban-development gradient
PDF, 990KB
Aug 22 14
Brian A. Millsap
Journal of Raptor Research, 36 (1):3-10
2002
I estimated survival rates of a Florida Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia floridana) population on a 35.9-km study area in Lee County, Florida, 1987-91 to determine if there was a relationship between annual survival and development density
Temporal patterns of DDE in Burrowing Owl eggs from the Imperial Valley, California
PDF, 75KB
Aug 15 14
Jennifer A. Gervais and Daniel H. Catlin
The Southwestern Naturalist, 49(4):509-512
2004
We compared levels of DDE contamination in the eggs of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) from the Imperial Valley of California in 2002 to levels detected in eggs collected at the same site in 1996.
Territory defense of nesting Burrowing Owls: Responses to simulated conspecific intrusion
PDF, 305KB
Aug 22 14
Colleen E. Moulton, Ryan S. Brady, and James R. Belthoff
Journal of Field Ornithology, 75 (3):288-295
2004
To investigate the potential expression of territorial behavior of Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia) in southwestern Idaho, we used a playback protocol to determine if Burrowing Owls actively defended their nesting site from conspecifics, and if so, to determine the extent of their territorial boundaries.
The diet of the Burrowing Owl, Athene cunicularia, in the arid lands of northeastern Patagonia, Argentina
PDF, 107KB
Aug 22 14
M.J. Nabte, U.J.F. Pardinas, and S.L. Saba
Journal of Arid Environments, 72:1526-1530
2008
Our results suggest that the Burrowing Owl were mainly nocturnal hunters and evidenced a generalist diet, consuming a wide spectrum of prey items, including invertebrates (insects and chelicerates), and several types of vertebrates (mammals, birds and lizards).
The diet of western burrowing owls in an urban landscape
PDF, 124KB
Jun 13 13
Lynne Trulio and Philip Higgins
Western North American Naturalist, 72(3):348-356
2012
Peer reviewed paper on the diet of Western Burrowing owls in urban settings
The effect of burrow site use on the reproductive success of a partially migratory population of Western Burrowing Owls (Speotyto cunicularia hypugaea)
PDF, 962KB
Jul 16 14
Eugene S. Botelho and Patricia C. Arrowood
Journal of Raptor Research, 32 (3):233-240
1998
We comparedthe number of nestlingsproduced by pairs of Burrowing Owls (Speotyto cunicularia hypugaeau) using burrows in different types of nest sites, use of different types of burrows by resident and migrant males, and burrow type use by returning migrant males and females and the productivity of individuals that switched burrows.
The effects of nesting success and mate fidelity on breeding dispersal in burrowing owls
PDF, 266KB
Jul 16 14
D. H. Catlin, D. K. Rosenberg, and K. L. Haley

Our results suggest that nesting failure was the primary factor associated with dispersal probability and dispersal distance in burrowing owls in our population.
The howdy owls of Arizona: A review of the status of Athene cunicularia
PDF, 819KB
Jul 16 14
Nikolle L. Brown
Journal of Raptor Research, 35 (4):344-350
2001
This paper summarizes existing information on the Burrowing Owl in Arizona and provides baseline information for future studies.
The importance of prairie dog towns to Burrowing Owls in Oklahoma
PDF, 33KB
Jul 16 14
K. O. Butts and J. C. Lewis
Proceedings of the Oklahoma Academy of Science, 62:46-52
1982
Owls that nest in nonprairie dog habitat in Oklahoma are utilizing marginal habitat and may consist primarily of population overflow from the preferred habitat. To maintain healthy populations of burrowing owls in Oklahoma, safe from possible extinction, prairie dog towns should also be maintained.
The status of Burrowing Owls in San Diego County, California
PDF, 996KB
Aug 22 14
Jeffrey L. Lincer and Peter H. Bloom
Proceedings of the California Burrowing Owl Symposium, 90-102
2007
Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia) populations in San Diego County appear to have decreased through the early 1900s in conjunction with human population growth and concomitant habitat loss.
Use of recorded calls to detect Burrowing Owls
PDF, 247KB
Aug 22 14
Elizabeth A. Haug and Andrew B. Didiuk
Journal of Field Ornithology, 64 (2):188-194
1993
Ventilatory and metabolic responses of Burrowing Owls, Athene cunicularia, to moderate and extreme hypoxia: Analysis of the hypoxic ventilatory threshold vs. hemoglobin oxygen affinity relationship in birds
PDF, 472KB
Aug 22 14
Delbert L. Kilgore Jr., Dona F. Boggs, Trevor J. Kilgore, Conrad Colby, Burl R. Williams Jr., and Ryan W. Bavis
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part A, 150:247-257
2008
In the current study, burrowing owls breathing 11% and 9% O2 showed a significantly elevated total ventilation. The arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) at which ventilation is elevated above normoxic values in burrowing owls was 58 mm Hg.
OTHER INFORMATION
2012 Shoreline Burrowing Owl Preservation Plan
PDF, 1.7MB
Aug 22 14
Lynne Trulio and Philip Higgins
City of Mountain View, Public Works and Community Services Department
2012
An adaptive management plan for Burrowing Owl population at Naval Air Station Lemoore
PDF, 400KB
Aug 22 14
Daniel Rosenberg, Jennifer Gervais, Holly Ober, and David DeSante
US Navy, Engineering Field Activity West
1998
Are Burrowing Owls using enhanced habitat?
PDF, 18KB
Aug 22 14
Andrea Kotylak and Margaret A. Skeel
Nature Saskatchewan
Monitoring at OBO sites has indicated the Saskatchewan Burrowing Owl population has declined 92% from 1988–2009 (OBO database). Habitat is improved by enlarging pastures to increase grassland patch size and reduce habitat fragmentation.
Burrowing owl habitat management plan - Evaluation of impacts to burrowing owls for the NASA Ames development plan
PDF, 3.7MB
Jun 28 12
Lynne Trulio
NASA Ames Development Plan
2002
Burrowing owl nesting success in urban and parkland sites in Northern California
PDF, 358KB
Jun 13 13
Lynne Trulio and Debra Chromczak
California Burrowing Owl Symposium, 1-15
Review of research on burrowing owl nesting success in urban and park settings.
Burrowing owl survey protocal and mitigation guidelines
PDF, 453KB
Jun 28 12
The California Burrowing Owl Consortium

1993
Current status, distribution, and conservation of the Burrowing Owl (Speotyto cunicularia) in Midwestern and Western North America
PDF, 176KB
Aug 22 14
Steven R. Sheffield
2nd Owl Symposium
I suggest that Burrowing Owls serve as a model sentinel species of the health of the midwestern and western grassland ecosystems and that proactive conservation measures and changes in policy are necessary for the continued existence of populations of Burrowing Owls.
Habitat management series for unique or endangered species: Burrowing Owl
PDF, 1.6MB
Aug 22 14
Mark Zarn
U.S. Bureau of Land Management Papers
1974
Natural history and protection of Burrowing Owls
PDF, 293KB
Aug 22 14
Clark S. Winchell
Proceedings of the Sixteenth Vertebrate Pest Conference
1994
Burrow types and ways to differentiate burrows used by owls from those used by California ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi) are outlined.
Observations on the breeding ecology of Burrowing Owls in Saskatchewan
PDF, 4MB
Aug 22 14
Elizabeth Anne Haug
A Thesis Presented to University of Saskatchewan
1985
Observations regarding breeding biology of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) were collected on 98 breeding pairs during 1982 and 1983.
Proceedings of the California burrowing owl symposium
PDF, 65KB
Jul 30 13
Barclay, Hunting, Lincer, Linthicum and Roberts

November 2003
Staff report on Burrowing owl mitigation
PDF, 116KB
Jun 28 12
California Department of Fish and Game

2012
Status assessment and conservation plan for the western burrowing owl in the United States
PDF, 908KB
Jun 13 13
David S. Klute, Loren W. Ayers, Michael T. Green William H. Howe Stephanie L. Jones Jill A. Shaffer Steven R. Sheffield6, Tara S. Zimmerman
US Fish & Wildlife Service, Biological Technical Publication
2003
Background information and conservation plan for the Western Burrowing Owl. Good bibliography attached.
Strategies for protecting western Burrowing Owls (Speotyto cunicularia hypugaea) from human activities
PDF, 45KB
Aug 22 14
Lynne A. Trulio
2nd Owl Symposium
Preliminary information indicates that methods which keep birds near nest burrows may be more successful than those in which birds are relocated outside nesting territories. Adequate monitoring is necessary when using these methods and more data are required to ascertain which conditions will produce successful breeding populations.
Study of waterbirds response to trail use in the South Bay salt pond restoration project
PDF, 2.6MB
Jul 30 13
Lynne Trulio, Ph.D., Jana Sokale, and Kevin Lafferty, Ph.D.

December 5, 2008
Report on the research conducted at the South Bay salt marsh to help managers adress public access and wildlife interactions
The role of food limitation and predation on reproductive success of Burrowing Owls in Southern California
PDF, 426KB
Aug 22 14
Katherin L. Haley
Thesis submitted to Oregon State University
2002
Users guide to installation of artificial burrows for Burrowing Owls
PDF, 3.3MB
Aug 22 14
David H. Johnson, Donald C. Gillis, Michael A. Gregg, James L. Rebholz, Jeffrey L. Lincer, and James R. Belthoff
Tree Top Inc.
2010
Artificial Burrow Systems (ABS) have been in use since the 1970’s, and this management tool has been thoughtfully studied and refined since its inception. In this Users Guide, we provide a synthesis of material relevant to the use of ABS for Burrowing Owls, insights into the placement of ABS, design specifications and installation techniques, and fundamental anti-predator strategies.

Links

TITLE DATE ADDED
Burrowing Owl Calls
http://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Burrowing_Owl/sounds
Jul 08 13
Distribution and abundance of western burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) in southeastern California
http://www.biomedsearch.com/article/Distribution-abundance-western-burrowing-owls/269339109.html
Sep 04 13
Long term population dynamics of a manged Burrowing Owl colony
http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70003522
Mar 11 14