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Archived Workshops/References

California Tiger Salamander

Description

The California tiger salamander has been protected as a threatened species throughout the species' range by the federal Endangered Species Act since August 2004. The Sonoma and Santa Barbara populations were reinstated with 'endangered' status in August 2005. In 2010, the species was listed as 'threatened' by the state of California.

The California tiger salamander (Ambystoma californiense) is an amphibian in the family Ambystomatidae. It is a large, stocky, terrestrial salamander with a broad, rounded snout. Adults males are about 8 inches long, females a little less than 7.

The species is restricted to grasslands and low (under 1500 foot) foothill regions where lowland aquatic sites are available for breeding. They prefer natural ephemeral pools or ponds that mimic them (stock ponds that are allowed to go dry).

This species is restricted to California and does not overlap with any other species of tiger salamander. California tiger salamanders are restricted to vernal pools and seasonal ponds, including many constructed stockponds, in grassland and oak savannah plant communities from sea level to about 1,500 feet in central California. In the Coastal region, populations are scattered from Sonoma County in the northern San Francisco Bay Area to Santa Barbara County, and in the Central Valley and Sierra Nevada foothills from Yolo to Kern counties.

The Sonoma population appears to have been geographically isolated from the remainder of the California tiger salamander population by distance, mountains and major waterway barriers for more than 700,000 years.

The primary cause of the decline of California tiger salamander populations is the loss and fragmentation of habitat from human activities and the encroachment of nonnative predators. Federal, State and local laws have not prevented past and ongoing losses of habitat. All of the estimated seven genetic populations of this species have been significantly reduced because of urban and agricultural development, land conversion, and other human-caused factors.

Automobiles and off-road vehicles kill a significant number of migrating California tiger salamanders, and contaminated runoff from roads, highways and agriculture may adversely affect them.

Much of the above is quoted from the USFWS website.

Training Programs

California Tiger Salamander - 2013 Workshop
California tiger salamander workshop - April 17th evening field practicum Apr 17, 2007
California Tiger Salamander Workshop - April 18th evening field practicum Apr 18, 2007
California tiger salamander workshop 2007 Apr 18, 2007
2008 California Tiger Salamander Workshop - May 14 Evening Field Practicum May 14, 2008
California Tiger Salamander Workshop - May 15 Evening Field Practicum 2008 May 15, 2008
California Tiger Salamander Workshop 2008 May 15, 2008
California Tiger Salamander Field Training Session #1 Apr 10, 2009
California Tiger Salamander Workshop 2009 Apr 10, 2009
California Tiger Salamander Field Training Session #2 Apr 11, 2009
California Tiger Salamander Workshop 2010 Mar 23, 2010
California Tiger Salamander Workshop 2010 Field Practicum #1 Mar 23, 2010
California Tiger Salamander Workshop Field Practicum #2 2010 Mar 24, 2010
California Tiger Salamander Workshop - special emphasis on sampling/surveying upland habitats Jun 21, 2010 - Jun 23, 2010
California Tiger Salamander Field Practicum #1 2011 May 6, 2011
California Tiger Salamander Workshop 2011 May 6, 2011
California Tiger Salamander Field Practicum #2 2011 May 7, 2011
California Tiger Salamander Field Training Practicum #1 2012 Jun 7, 2012
California Tiger Salamander Workshop 2012 Jun 7, 2012
California Tiger Salamander Field Training Practicum #2 2012 Jun 8, 2012
California Tiger Salamander Field Practicum #1 2013 Apr 25, 2013
California Tiger Salamander Workshop 2013 Apr 25, 2013
California Tiger Salamander Field Practicum #2 2013 Apr 26, 2013
California Tiger Salamander Field Practicum #1 2014 Jun 19, 2014
California Tiger Salamander Workshop 2014 Jun 19, 2014
California Tiger Salamander Field Practicum #2 2014 Jun 20, 2014
California Tiger Salamander Field Practicum #1 2015 Apr 23, 2015
California Tiger Salamander Workshop 2015 Apr 23, 2015
California Tiger Salamander Field Practicum #2 2015 Apr 24, 2015
California Tiger Salamander Workshop for CDFW Staff 2015 Apr 27, 2015
Ecology of California Tiger Salamander for CDFW May 23, 2016
Ecology of California Tiger Salamander for CDFW - Field Training Session #1 May 23, 2016
Ecology of California Tiger Salamander for CDFW - Field Training Session #2 May 24, 2016
Ecology of California Tiger Salamander - Field Training Session #1 May 26, 2016
Ecology of the California Tiger Salamander May 26, 2016
Ecology of California Tiger Salamander - Field Training Session #2 May 27, 2016
Ecology of the California Tiger Salamander for CDFW May 15, 2017
Ecology of California Tiger Salamander May 18, 2017

Documents and Publications

TITLE
DATE ADDED
AUTHOR
SOURCE
DESCRIPTION
WORKSHOP MATERIALS
California Tiger Salamander Workshop Presentation
PDF, 3.9MB
Jun 12 13
Dr. Pete Trenham Dr. Chris Searcy
Elkhorn Slough Coastal Training Program
2015
Current presentation for CTS workshop
California Tiger Salamander Workshop Supplemental Materials
PDF, 443KB
Jun 07 12
Dr. Pete Trenham
Elkhorn Slough Coastal Training Program
May 2015
Includes bibliography
Presentation: California Department of Fish and Game's CTS 2009 Presentation
PDF, 1MB
Apr 13 09
Julie Vance
CDFG
April 2009
This presentation was given during our 2009 CTS workshop by Julie Vance and outlines CDFG's process of project screening and review as well as how the status of the species to the State of California.
Presentation: Daniel Russell - USFW and CTS 2009
PDF, 592KB
Apr 13 09
Daniel Russell
USFWS
April 2009
This presentation by Daniel Russell with USFWS was given in our 2009 CTS workshop. It outlines basic information regarding current information regarding the federal Endangered Species Act with regard to the California tiger salamander.
PEER-REVIEWED PUBLICATIONS
A comparison of the food habits of Ambystoma macrodactylum sigillatum, Ambystoma macrodactylum croceum, and Ambystoma tigrinum californiense
PDF, 388KB
May 27 14
James D. Anderson
Herpetologica 24(4):273-284
1968
The present study compares the food habits of the following: 1) adult and larval Ambystoma macrodactylum croceum and A. m. sigillatum; 2) sympatric larvae of A. m. croceum and A. tigrinum californiense; 3) different age classes of one population of A. m. sigillatum.
Alternative forms for genomic clines
PDF, 3.4MB
May 28 14
Benjamin M. Fitzpatrick
Ecology and Evolution 3(7):1951-1966
2013
I propose two alternative cline models, implement multivariate outlier detection to identify markers associated with hybrid fitness, and simulate hybrid zone dynamics to evaluate the signatures of different modes of selection.
Amphibian Upland Habitat Use & Its Consequences for Population Viability
PDF, 197KB
Jun 05 08
Peter C. Trenham & H. Bradley Shaffer
Ecological Applications 15(4):1158-1168
2005
http://www2.eve.ucdavis.edu/shafferlab/publications.htm
Assessing Suitability for Conservation Action: Prioritizing Interpond Linkages for the California Tiger Salamander
PDF, 396KB
May 28 14
Christopher R. Pyke
Conservation Biology, 19(2):492-503
2005
Calculating Biologically Accurate Mitigation Credits: Insights from the California Tiger Salamander
PDF, 415KB
Feb 15 11
Christopher Searcy and Bradley Shaffer
Conservation Biology 22(4):997-1005
2008
Can California Ranchers Save The Tiger Salamander?
PDF, 134KB
Apr 20 07
Erik Stokstad
Science 305:1554
September 10, 2004
Cattle Grazing Mediates Climate Change Impacts on Ephemeral Wetlands
PDF, 193KB
May 28 14
Christopher R. Pyke and Jaymee Marty
Conservation Biology 19(5):1619-1625
2005
We used a combination of experimental manipulations and simulation modeling to investigate the effects of interactions between cattle grazing and regional climate change on vernal pool communities.
Data on the Life History of Ambystoma tigrinum californiense Gray
PDF, 142KB
May 27 14
Victor C. Twitty
Copeia, No. 1:1-4
1941
Since relatively little information is available concerning the Ambystoma of California, it seems desirable to record certain data accumulated during the past few years, mostly incidental to the collection of embryos and adults for experimental purposes.
Delayed life history effects, multilevel selection, and evolutionary trade-offs in the California tiger salamander
PDF, 2.4MB
May 28 14
Christopher A. Searcy, Levi N. Gray, Peter C. Trenham, and H. Bradley Shaffer
Ecology, 95(1):68-77
2014
In this study, we used multiple mark–recapture techniques enabled by a large trapping array to monitor components of fitness and resulting DLHEs in a population of the endangered California tiger salamander
Demography and breeding phenology of the California tiger salamander (Ambystoma californiense) in an urban landscape
PDF, 1.4MB
May 27 14
David G. Cook, Peter C. Trenham, and Philip T. Northen
Northwestern Naturalist 87:215-224
2006
Although developed landscapes are less than optimal for the long-term conservation of this species, our study shows that populations may persist with some degree of adjacent development.
Distribution of Migrating Adults Related to the Location of Remnant Grassland around an Urban California Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma californiense) Breeding Pool
PDF, 341KB
Aug 01 08
Peter C. Trenham and David G. Cook
Urban Herpetology, Herpetological Conservation, Mitchell, J.C., and R.E. Jung Brown (Eds.). Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.
2008
Chapter 2
Ecosystem Services are Social–ecological Services in a Traditional Pastoral System: the Case of California’s Mediterranean Rangelands
PDF, 1.4MB
Jun 24 14
Lynn Huntsinger and Jose L. Oviedo
Ecology and Society, 19 (1):8
2014
Using a social–ecological systems perspective, we explore the integral role of human activity and decisions at pasture, ranch, and landscape scales.
Effective population size is strongly correlated with breeding pond size in the endangered California tiger salamander, Ambystoma californiense
PDF, 500KB
Jun 24 14
Ian J. Wang, Jarrett R. Johnson, Benjamin B. Johnson, H. Bradley Shaffer
Conserv Genet 12:911-920
2011
We sampled 203 individuals from 10 breeding ponds on a local landscape, and used 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci to quantify genetic structure, gene flow, and effective population sizes.
Effects of Cattle Grazing on Diversity in Ephemeral Wetlands
PDF, 189KB
May 28 14
Jaymee T. Marty
Conservation Biology, 19(5):1626-1632
2005
Across 72 vernal pools, I examined the effect of different grazing treatments (ungrazed, continuously grazed, wet-season grazed and dry-season grazed) on vernal-pool plant and aquatic faunal diversity in the Central Valley of California.
Effects of tail-clipping on survivorship and growth of larval salamanders
PDF, 414KB
Jun 24 14
Rebecca L. Polich, Christopher A. Searcy, and H. Bradley Shaffer
The Journal of Wildlife Management 77(7):1420-1425
2013
We used a semi-natural mesocosm experiment to determine the effect of larval tail-clipping on growth and survival of the endangered California tiger salamander.
Environment-dependent admixture dynamics in a tiger salamander hybrid zone
PDF, 2.7MB
May 27 14
Benjamin M. Fitzpatrick and H. Bradley Shaffer
Evolution, 58(6):1282-1293
2004
We studied genetic and ecological factors influencing admixture of these two divergent gene pools by analyzing frequencies of hybrid genotypes in three kinds of breeding habitats: natural vernal pools, ephemeral man-made cattle ponds, and perennial man-made ponds.
Exploring the Status of Population Genetics: The Role of Ecology
PDF, 232KB
May 28 14
Roberta L. Millstein
Biol Theory 7:346-357
2013
I argue that population genetics is a powerful and useful tool that continues to be used and modified, even if it isn’t required for all evolutionary explanations or doesn’t incorporate all the causal factors of evolution.
Habitat Use and Migration Behavior of the California Tiger Salamander
PDF, 134KB
May 27 14
Ivette Loredo, Dirk Van Vuren, and Michael L. Morrison
Journal of Herpetology, 30(2):282-285
1996
Hybrid vigor between native and introduced salamanders raises new challenges for conservation
PDF, 370KB
May 28 14
Benjamin M. Fitzpatrick and H. Bradley Shaffer
Pnas, 104(40):15793-15797
2007
Here, we measured natural selection caused by differential viability of hybrid larvae in wild populations where native California Tiger Salamanders (Ambystoma californiense) and introduced Barred Tiger Salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum mavortium) have been hybridizing for 50–60 years.
Hybridization Between a Rare, Native Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma californiense) and its Introduced Congener
PDF, 310KB
Jun 05 08
Seth P. D. Riley, H. Bradley Shaffer, S. Randal Voss, & Benjamin M. Fitzpatrick
Ecological Applications 13(5):1263-1275
2003
http://www2.eve.ucdavis.edu/shafferlab/publications.htm
Introduction history and habitat variation explain the landscape genetics of hybrid tiger salamanders
PDF, 2.3MB
May 28 14
Benjamin M. Fitzpatrick and H. Bradley Shaffer
Ecological Applications, 17(2):598-608
2007
We describe the extent of introgression between native California tiger salamanders (Ambystomacaliforniense) and introduced barred tiger salamanders (A. tigrinum mavortium) relative to habitat, distance from introduction sites, and watershed boundaries.
Invasive hybrid tiger salamander genotypes impact native amphibian
PDF, 1MB
May 27 14
Maureen E. Ryan, Jarrett R. Johnson, and Benjamin Fitzpatrick
Pnas, 106(27):11166-11171
2009
Examines the ecological effects of hybridization between the native, threatened California Tiger Salamander and the introduced Barred Tiger Salamander.
Landscape genetics and least-cost path analysis reveal unexpected dispersal routes in the California tiger salamander (Ambystoma californiense)
PDF, 3.4MB
May 28 14
Ian J. Wang, Wesley K. Savage, and H. Bradley Shaffer
Molecular Ecology 18:1365-1374
2009
We present a methodology for identifying the costs of dispersal through different habitats for the California tiger salamander (Ambystoma californiense), an endangered species restricted to grassland/vernal pool habitat mosaics.
Late summer movement and mass mortality in the California tiger salamander
PDF, 561KB
May 27 14
Dan C. Holland, Marc P. Hayes, and Eben McMillian
The Southwestern Naturalist, 35(2):217-220
1990
Lethal Effects of Water Quality on Threatened California Salamanders but Not on Co-Occurring Hybrid Salamanders
PDF, 575KB
May 28 14
Maureen E. Ryan, Jarrett R. Johnson, Benjamin M. Fitzpatrick, Linda J. Lowenstine, Angela M. Picco, and H. Bradley Shaffer
Conservation Biology, 27(1):95-102
2012
We necropsied native and hybrid salamanders, tested water quality, and queried the California Department of Pesticide Regulation database to investigate possible causes of the die-offs.
Life History and Demographic Variation in the California Tiger Salamander
PDF, 101KB
Feb 15 11
Peter C. Trenham, H. Bradley Shaffer, Walter D. Koenig, and Mark R. Stromberg
Copeia 2:365-377
2000
Microhabitat use and migration distance of an endangered grassland amphibian
PDF, 475KB
May 28 14
Christopher A. Searcy, Emilio Gabbai-Saldate, and H. Bradley Shaffer
Biological Conservation 158:80-87
2013
Our results emphasize the importance of replicating landscape ecological studies over sites and years, particularly for endangered taxa where effective management hinges on understanding the variability in habitat use across time and space.
Movement Patterns and Migration Distances in an Upland Population of California Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma californiense)
PDF, 1.1MB
Apr 05 12
Susan G. Orloff
Herpetological Conservation and Biology 6(2):266-276
2011
In situations where translocation is used to remove salamanders from upland habitats subject to development, results suggest it may take several years to successfully relocate a high proportion of individuals in the population.
Parallel tagged amplicon sequencing reveals major lineages and phylogenetic structure in the North American tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) species complex
PDF, 2.8MB
Jun 24 14
Eric M. O'Neill, Rachel Schwartz, C. Thomas Bullock, Joshua S. Williams, H. Bradley Shaffer, X. Aguilar-Miguel, Gabriela Parra-Olea, and David W. Weisrock
Molecular Ecology
2012
We present the results of an initial application of parallel tagged sequencing (PTS) on a next-generation platform to sequence thousands of barcoded PCR amplicons generated from 95 nuclear loci and 93 individuals sampled across the range of the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) species complex.
Rapid spread of invasive genes into a threatened native species
PDF, 622KB
May 27 14
Benjamin M. Fitzpatrick, Jarrett R. Johnson, D. Kevin Kump, Jeramiah J. Smith, S. Randal Voss, and H. Bradley Shaffer
Pnas 107(8):3606-3610
2010
We document the spread of a few introduced genes 90 km into a threatened native species (the California Tiger Salamander) in 60 years.
Reproductive Ecology of a Population of the California Tiger Salamander
PDF, 238KB
May 27 14
Ivette Loredo and Dirk Van Vuren
Copeia, 4:895-901
1996
We studied breeding migrations and variation in reproductive traits of the California tiger salamander, Ambystoma californiense, in Contra Costa County, California over two winter breeding seasons and three summer metamorphosis seasons (1992-1994).
Retention of low-fitness genotypes over six decades of admixture between native and introduced tiger salamanders
PDF, 397KB
Jun 13 14
Jarrett R. Johnson, Benjamin M. Fitzpatrick, and H Bradley Shaffer
BMC Evolutionary Biology 10:147
2010
Based on first- and second- generation cross types, our results suggest that the initial barrier to gene flow between these two species was relatively weak, and subsequent evolution has been generally slow.
Short pond hydroperiod decreases fitness of nonnative hybrid salamanders in California
PDF, 619KB
May 28 14
J. R. Johnson, M. E. Ryan, S. J. Micheletti, and H. B. Shaffer
Animal Conservation 16:556-565
2013
Our study experimentally examines the relationship between hydroperiod and fitness of three classes of salamanders: native, nonnative and hybrid.
Short- , medium- , and long-term repeatability of locomotor performance in the tiger salamander Ambystoma californiense
PDF, 999KB
May 27 14
C. C. Austin and H. B. Shaffer
Functional Ecology 6:145-153
1992
This review suggests that (1) repeat abilities for amphibians are generally lower than for squamates, and(2) in all cases, repeatability of locomotor performance declines over time.
Spatial Tests of the Pesticide Drift, Habitat Destruction, UV-B, and Climate-Change Hypotheses for California Amphibian Declines
PDF, 2.8MB
May 27 14
Carlos Davidson, H. Bradley Shaffer, and Mark R. Jennings
Conservation Biology, 16(6):1588-1601
2002
Wind-borne pesticides have long been suggested as a cause of amphibian declines in areas without obvious habitat destruction.
Spatially Autocorrelated Demography and Interpond Dispersal In The Salamander Ambystoma californiense
PDF, 339KB
Aug 01 08
Peter C. Trenham, Walter D. Koenig and H. Bradley Shaffer
Ecology, 82(12):3519-3530
2001
Susceptibility of the Endangered California Tiger Salamander, Ambystoma californiense, to Ranavirus Infection
PDF, 167KB
May 28 14
Angela M. Picco, Jesse L. Brunner, and James P. Collins
Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 43(2):286-290
2007
In this report, we demonstrate that the California tiger salamander, Ambystoma californiense, is susceptible to Ambystoma tigrinum virus (ATV). This virus has not been previously reported in California tiger salamander, but observed mortality in experimentally infected animals suggests that California tiger salamander populations could be adversely affected by an ATV introduction.
Sympatry in California tiger salamander and California red-legged frog breeding habitat within their overlapping range
PDF, 145KB
May 28 14
Jeff A. Alvarez, Mary A. Shea, Jeffery T. Wilcox, Mark A. Allaback, Sarah M. Foster, Gretchen E. Padgett-Flohr, and Jennifer L. Haire
California Fish and Game, 99(1):42-48
2013
Terrestrial distribution of pond-breeding salamanders around an isolated wetland
PDF, 357KB
May 28 14
David E. Scott, Mark J. Komoroski, Dean A. Croshaw, and Philip M. Dixon
Ecology, 94(11):2537-2546
2013
We used an encircling drift fence at a breeding pond in conjunction with partial fences at 90, 172, and 332 m from the wetland to estimate the terrestrial distribution of adult marbled salamanders (Ambystoma opacum; four breeding seasons) and mole salamanders (A. talpoideum; two seasons), as well as the dispersion of newly metamorphosed A. opacum (one summer).
Terrestrial habitat use by adult California tiger salamanders
PDF, 666KB
Aug 01 08
Peter C. Trenham
Journal of Herpetology, 35(2):343-346
2001
The Decline of Amphibians in California's Great Central Valley
PDF, 1.8MB
May 23 14
Robert N. Fisher and H. Bradley Shaffer
Conservation Biology 10(5):1387-1397
1996
Declines in amphibian populations are rarely reported on the community or ecosystem level. We combined broad-scale field sampling with historical analyses of museum records to quantify amphibian declines in California's Great Central Valley
The effectiveness of pond-breeding salamanders as agents of larval mosquito control
PDF, 150KB
May 25 16
Robert Brodman Ryan Dorton
Journal of Freshwater Ecology
2006
"suggests...tiger salamander population can eat a large number of mosquito larvae and could be effective natural agents in the biological control of larval mosquito populations."
The Effects of Livestock on California Ground Squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyii)
PDF, 209KB
Apr 20 07
Jeffrey S. Fehmi, Sabrina E. Russo, James W. Bartolome
Rangeland Ecology and Management 58:352-359
July 2005
Using livestock exclosures, we examined the effects of moderate cattle grazing on the abundance of California ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyii Richardson) and the spatial distribution of active burrows within their colonies in grassland and blue oak savanna habitats in the coastal range of California over a 3-year period. Relative population densities of California ground squirrel did not differ between grazed and ungrazed colonies or between habitats.
The molecular phylogenetics of endangerment: cryptic variation and historical phylogeography of the California tiger salamander, Ambystoma californiense
PDF, 317KB
Feb 15 11
H. Bradley Shaffer, Gregory B. Pauly, Jeffrey C. Oliver, and Peter C. Trenham
Molecular Ecology 13:3033-3049
2004
The origin of tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) populations in California, Oregon, and Nevada: introductions or relicts?
PDF, 544KB
Jun 24 14
Jarrett R. Johnson, Robert C. Thomson, Steven J. Micheletti, and H. Bradley Shaffer
Conserv Genet 12:355-370
2011
We used genetic sequence data to determine the provenance of all known extralimital A. tigrinum populations in California and adjacent Oregon and Nevada through comparison with reference samples from the native range of A. tigrinum.
The polytypic species revisited: genetic differentiation and molecular phylogenetics of the tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum (Amphibia: Caudata) complex
PDF, 2.8MB
Aug 01 08
H. Bradley Shaffer; Mark L. McKnight
Evolution, 50(1):417-433
Feb. 1996
The Status of the California Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma californiense) at Lagunita:A 50-year Update
PDF, 188KB
May 27 14
Sean J. Barry and H. Bradley Shaffer
Journal of Herpetology, 28(2):159-164
1994
We review the history of the California tiger salamander (Ambystoma californiense) population at Lagunita, a114-year old reservoir at Stanford University, Santa Clara County, California
OTHER INFORMATION
Ambystoma californiense Gray, 1853, California tiger salamander
PDF, 32KB
Apr 15 09
Shaffer, H. B., and P. C. Trenham
M. Lannoo, editor. Amphibian Declines - The Conservation Status of United States Species. University of California Press, Berkeley
2005
Book chapter featuring conservation status and biological information on the California tiger salamander.
Ambystoma californiense, California Tiger Salamander...chapter in
PDF, 32KB
Feb 15 11
Bradley Shaffer and Pete Trenham
Berkeley Press
2005
Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Status for the Sonoma County Distinct Population Segment of the California Tiger Salamander
PDF, 251KB
May 28 14
United States Fish and Wildlife Service
Federal Register, Vol. 68, No. 53, 13498-13520
2003
Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Threatened Status for the California Tiger Salamander; and Special Rule Exemption for Existing Routine Ranching Activities
PDF, 323KB
May 28 14
United States Fish and Wildlife Service
Federal Register, Vol. 69, No. 149, 47212-47248
2004
Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Emergency Rule To List the Santa Barbara County Distinct Population of the California Tiger Salamander as Endangered
PDF, 299KB
May 28 14
United States Fish and Wildlife Service
Federal Register, Vol. 65, No. 12, 3096-3109
2000
Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Final Rule To List the Santa Barbara County Distinct Population of the California Tiger Salamander as Endangered
PDF, 338KB
May 28 14
United States Fish and Wildlife Service
Federal Register, Vol. 65, No. 184, 57242-57264
2000
Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Sonoma County Distinct Population Segment of the California Tiger Salamander as Endangered
PDF, 164KB
May 28 14
United State Fish and Wildlife Service
Federal Register, Vol. 67, No. 140, 47758-47760
2002
Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposal To List the Santa Barbara County Distinct Population of the California Tiger Salamander as Endangered
PDF, 244KB
May 28 14
United States Fish and Wildlife Service
Federal Register, Vol. 65, No. 12, 3110-3111
2000
Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Review of Species That Are Candidates or Proposed for Listing as Endangered or Threatened; Annual Notice of Findings on Recycled Petitions; Annual Description of Progress on Listing Actions
PDF, 288KB
May 28 14
United States Fish and Wildlife Service
Federal Register, Vol. 67, No. 114, 40657-40679
2002
Great Valley Vernal Pool Distribution, Photorevised 1996
PDF, 34KB
May 28 14
Robert F. Holland
Pages 71-75 in: C.W. Witham, E.T. Bauder, D. Belk, W.R. Ferren Jr., and R. Ornduff (Editors). Ecology, Conservation, and Management of Vernal Pool Ecosystems – Proceedings from a 1996 Conference. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento, CA
1998
I remapped the distribution of vernal pool habitats throughout California’s Great Valley and up to the conifer zones in the surrounding Cascade - Sierra Nevada and Coast Ranges.
Report to the Fish and Game Commission: A Status Review of the California Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma californiense)
PDF, 7.3MB
May 06 11

CDFG
2010

Links

TITLE DATE ADDED
Interim Guidance on Site Assessment and Field Surveys for Determining Presence or a Negative Finding of the California Tiger Salamander
http://www.fws.gov/Pacific/ecoservices/endangered/recovery/documents/CalTigerSalamander.2003.protocol.pdf
Jan 29 09
Shaffer lab publications, including on CTS
https://www.eeb.ucla.edu/Faculty/Shaffer/
Jun 12 13
California Herps
http://www.californiaherps.com/
Jun 25 14